تم نشر مقالة علمية للتدريسية *رشا فاصل عبيد* بعنوان Vaccination versus inoculation

تاريخ النشر: 23/09/2020
عدد المشاهدات: 9
تم نشر الموضوع بواسطة: اعلام قسم تقنيات التخدير
Vaccination versus inoculation



Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines is virus a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. adaptive immunity stimulating in body after vaccination , they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases, widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world.
Immunization and vaccination have a similar meaning in everyday language. This is distinct from inoculation, which uses unweakened live pathogens. Vaccination efforts have been met with some reluctance on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds, although no major religions oppose vaccination, and some consider it an obligation due to the potential to save lives.In the United States, people may receive compensation for alleged injuries under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Early success brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.

Dr Byron Plant explains: "Vaccination is the more commonly used term, which actually consists of a 'safe' injection of a sample taken from a cow suffering from cowpox... Inoculation, a practice probably as old as the disease itself, is the injection of the variola virus taken from a pustule or scab of a smallpox sufferer into the superficial layers of the skin, commonly on the upper arm of the subject. The term inoculation is often used interchangeably with vaccination. However, the terms are not synonymous. Often inoculation was done 'arm-to-arm' or, less effectively, 'scab-to-arm'..." Inoculation oftentimes caused the patient to become infected with smallpox, and in some cases the infection turned into a severe .
Reference
• Fiore AE, Bridges CB, Cox NJ (2009). Seasonal influenza vaccines. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 333. pp. 43–82. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92165-3_3. ISBN 978-3-540-92164-6. PMID 19768400.
• • Chang Y, Brewer NT, Rinas AC, Schmitt K, Smith JS (July 2009). "Evaluating the impact of human papillomavirus vaccines". Vaccine. 27 (32): 4355–62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.008. PMID 19515467.
• Liesegang TJ (August 2009). "Varicella zoster virus vaccines: effective, but concerns linger". Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 44 (4): 379–84. doi:10.3129/i09-126. PMID 19606157.
McNeil DG (26 April 2019). "Religious Objections to the Measles Vaccine? Get the Shots, Faith Leaders Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
"The Smallpox Epidemic of 1862 (Victoria BC)--Doctors and Diagnosis". web.uvic.ca. Retrieved 29 September 2016.